PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play Movie showing all 17 of our computer models, in evolutionary sequence from furthers to closest in relationship to living birds. Credit: John R. Hutchinson The simulation isn’t able to show definitively if the increase in forelimb size, or the shift in stance was responsible for the development of flight, but it certainly seems logical to conclude that it was all part of the same gradual process. Developing a crouched position was necessary the researchers note, to support the increased mass that developed towards the front part of the dinosaurs. But that, they add, also means adding more hind leg muscle to support the crouch—it’s a far less energy efficient posture. They point to real life dinosaur examples, such as Archaeopteryx, Microraptor and the Velociraptor as proof of their theory—each sported shorter tails, bigger forelimbs and a crouched position due to a more forward center of gravity. For many years, the consensus among those who study dinosaurs was that the crouch seen in modern birds was most likely due to a shift in center of balance as tails grew smaller over time. To find out if this was actually the case, the researchers fed data from several types of dinosaurs (mostly archosaurs), modern birds and their closet living relative, crocodiles, into a computer model. Using that information, they built skeletons and then manually covered them with muscle and skin. The computer was then directed to simulate changes in body structure over millions of years of evolution to see how they impacted the center of gravity of evolving dinosaurs. Surprisingly, they found that it wasn’t slowly diminishing tails that caused the animals to shift their stance, it was the development of larger forelimbs, which of course, over many more millions of years, for some, led to the development of wings. Citation: Computer simulations show evolution of birds’ crouch likely due to increase in forelimb size (w/ video) (2013, April 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-simulations-evolution-birds-crouch-due.html Play Movie showing the 3D modelling procedure that we used; here featuring the large dinosaur Allosaurus. Credit: John R. Hutchinson This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: Concept art by Luis Rey Journal information: Nature Muscle reconstruction reveals how dinosaurs stood More information: Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs, Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12059AbstractLocomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria. We use three-dimensional digital reconstruction to estimate body shape from skeletal dimensions for 17 archosaurs along the ancestral bird line, including the exceptionally preserved, feathered taxa Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Pengornis and Yixianornis, which represent key stages in the evolution of the avian body plan. Rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures in the basal-most birds (Avialae) and their immediate outgroup deinonychosauria5, 6, our results support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution, although we find evidence of an accelerated change within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs). In addition, whereas reduction of the tail is widely accepted to be the primary morphological factor correlated with centre-of-mass position and, hence, evolution of hindlimb posture, we instead find that enlargement of the pectoral limb and several associated trends have a much stronger influence. Intriguingly, our support for the onset of accelerated morpho-functional trends within Maniraptora is closely correlated with the evolution of flight. Because we find that the evolution of enlarged forelimbs is strongly linked, via whole-body centre of mass, to hindlimb function during terrestrial locomotion, we suggest that the evolution of avian flight is linked to anatomical novelties in the pelvic limb as well as the pectoral.Press release Explore further Animal standing or at the midpoint of a step (a). For the animal to balance, forces applied by the feet (red) must match the force of body weight (blue) pointing downwards from the centre of mass (yellow/black). If the centre of mass moves forward (b), then the feet must move forward (and thus the limb must get more crouched) to maintain balance, as in (c). Credit: John R. Hutchinson © 2013 Phys.org PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (Phys.org) —An international team of researchers working together to discover how, when and why birds have evolved to stand in a crouching position, have come to the conclusion that it was due much more to the growth of forelimbs than a reduction in size of the tail. The team describes in their paper published in the journal Nature, how they built computer simulations to recreate in a virtual sense, the evolution process that led to the crouching position and possibly the evolution of flight.
(Phys.org)—A very public argument has erupted between researchers involved in attempting to understand why monkeys cannot speak—in the pages of respected journals. The argument traces its roots back several decades when a group led by Philip Lieberman conducted research on rhesus macaques to better understand why they cannot speak in a human-like manner. They concluded that the vocal abilities of the monkeys were far too limited to allow the monkeys to talk anything like humans—even if they had the proper brain wiring. More information: 1. Philip Lieberman. Comment on “Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready”, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700442AbstractMonkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that “monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready,” and conclude that “…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy.” Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.2. W. Tecumseh Fitch et al. Response to Lieberman on “Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready”, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701859 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Photo of Vervet taken in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by Alexander Landfair. Credit: Wikipedia. Journal information: Science Advances Monkey speak: Macaques have the anatomy, not the brain, for human speech Then, late last year, another team led by W. Tecumseh Fitch, published a report on the open access site Science Advances outlining their research which suggested that perhaps some monkeys did have enough vocal abilities to speak many human-like words. That report caused Liberman to pen a Technical Comments piece for Science Advances criticizing the work by Fitch and his team. The rebuke by Lieberman appeared to upset the Fitch team—they subsequently published a Technical Comment of their own, also in Science Advances, pointing out the differences in their work and what Lieberman had found.Fitch and his group argue that they used techniques not available several decades ago when Liberman and his group were doing their monkey throat studies, which included making plaster casts of the throat and other vocal parts. The newer work involved making X-ray videos of live macaques as they engaged in activities like eating or making noises. Fitch and his team claimed their studies proved that monkeys were capable of making far more sounds than Lieberman and his team claimed—enough sounds to put together words. They acknowledged that the vocal abilities would be limited, but likely strong enough to convey meaningful dialog.For his part, Lieberman claims that no amount of additional research could prove that monkeys could talk because they lack some of the basic physical architecture required to do so.The back and forth between the two groups eventually led to an argument over whether a monkey could pronounce long E—as in reed, read or even Reid. Liberman contends that surgery would be required for a monkey to speak any word with a long E in it because they do not have the tongue for it. Meanwhile, Fitch and his group suggested that the importance of long E use in language is still debatable, further incensing Lieberman by calling it mythical. It is still not clear how the argument will end, or if either side will convince the other. © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Researchers argue publicly on how well monkeys could talk if their brains were able (2017, July 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-publicly-monkeys-brains.html Explore further
The asteroid belt may be have started out empty and was populated by objects from across the Solar System. Credit: Sean Raymond, planetplanet.net (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers with Université de Bordeaux has proposed a new theory to explain the origin of the asteroid belt. In their paper published in Science Advances, Sean Raymond and Andre Izidoro describe their theory and what they found when trying to model it. The asteroid belt (sometimes referred to as the main asteroid belt) orbits between Mars and Jupiter. It consists of asteroids and minor planets forming a disk around the sun. It also serves as a sort of dividing line between the inner rocky planets and outer gas giants. Current theory suggests that the asteroid belt was once much more heavily populated, but the gravitational pull of Jupiter flung approximately 99 percent of its former material to other parts of the solar system or beyond. Astronomers also assumed that Jupiter’s gravity prevented the material in the belt from coalescing into larger planets. In this new effort, the researchers propose a completely different explanation of the asteroid belt’s origin—suggesting that the belt started out as an empty space and was subsequently filled by material flung from the inner and outer planets.The researchers note that asteroids closer to the rocky planets (called S-type asteroids) tend to contain silicate, similar to the inner planets. By contrast, asteroids in the belt closer to the gas giants (called C-type asteroids) tend to contain more carbon, making them more like the gas giants. This, the researchers note, suggests that the asteroids actually came from the planets as they were forming—excess material was essentially kicked away into the asteroid belt, where it remains today.To test their theory, the researchers created a model mimicking the early solar system, during which the asteroid belt starts out as empty. Running the model forward, they report, showed that it was possible that material from the other planets could have made its way to the belt, resulting in the disk observed today. They plan to continue their research to see if they can find more evidence for their theory, or for the conventional view. Citation: New theory on origin of the asteroid belt (2017, September 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-09-theory-asteroid-belt.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Astronomers identify oldest known asteroid family More information: Sean N. Raymond et al. The empty primordial asteroid belt, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701138AbstractThe asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth’s mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter’s present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets’ gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself. Journal information: Science Advances © 2017 Phys.org
The scientists designed the experimental system to synthesize focal vortices at a frequency of 4.4 MHz, with spiraling metallic electrodes that were deposited at the surface of a Y-36 niobate lithium (LiNbO3) piezoelectric substrate. To drive the vibration of these spiraling electrodes the scientists used a waveform generator and an amplifier for beam convergence during the experiment within an aqueous microfluidic setup consisting of a glass coverslip and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chamber. They ensured better transmission of acoustic energy from the glass to the liquid in the experimental setup and used a Polytec laser vibrometer to measure the resulting acoustic field at the surface of the glass coverslip.In the experimental setup, Baudoin et al. used metallic electrodes deposited on the surface of the piezoelectric substrate to synthesize converged Hankel beams of finite aperture. They excited each electrode to provoke localized vibrations on the piezoelectric substrate and produce a bulk acoustic vortex inside a glass slide. In this holographic method, they combined several concepts in the field of microelectronics, including the underlying physical principles of Fresnel lenses in optics, the specificity of Bessel beam topology and the principles of wave synthesis with interdigital transducers (IDTs). Acoustic tweezers are based on focused acoustic vortices and hold promise to precisely manipulate microorganisms and cells from the millimeter scale down to the submicron scale, without contact, and with unprecedented selectivity and trapping force. The widespread use of the technique is hindered at present by limitations to the existing systems stemming from performance, miniaturization and the inability to assimilate in compartments. In a recent study, Michael Baudoin and colleagues at the Sorbonne University and the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), improved the potential of focused acoustic vortices by developing the first flat, compact and paired single electrode focalized or focused ‘acoustical tweezer’. Journal information: Science Advances © 2019 Science X Network , Lab on a Chip Explore further , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America The invention relied on spiraling transducers that were engineered by folding a spherical acoustic vortex on a flat piezoelectric substrate. Baudoin et al. demonstrated the ability of these acoustic tweezers to grab and displace micrometric objects within a microfluidic environment with unique selectivity. The system is simple and scalable to higher frequencies; opening tremendous perspectives in microbiology, microrobotics and microscopy. The results are now published in Science Advances.The first reported observations of partial levitation in acoustic wave fields date back to the work of Boyle and Lehmann in 1925. Precise and contactless manipulation of physical and biological objects at the micrometer scale down to the nanometer scale has promising applications in the modern, diverse fields of microrobotics, tissue engineering and micro/nanomedicine. Acoustic tweezers are a prominent technology to accomplish the task as they are noninvasive, biocompatible and label-free. They are also able to trap forces that are several orders of magnitude larger than their optical counterparts, at the same actuation power. However, only recently have scientists simultaneously developed advanced wave synthesis systems, microfluidic setups and the theory of acoustic radiation pressure, to allow the potential of acoustophoresis (motion with sound) to be harnessed. Until recently a majority of acoustical tweezers relied on a single, or set of orthogonal standing waves to create a network of nodes and antinodes to trap particles. While these systems were highly efficient for the collective manipulation of particles and cells, the system prevented specific selectivity. While limited localization of the acoustic energy could be achieved using the original sub-time-of-flight technique, only the strong focus of wave fields could allow specific selectivity at the level of the single particle. Movie showing the selective manipulation of polystyrene particle having a radius of 75 ± 2 μm with the 4.4-MHz selective acoustical tweezers based on Archimedes-Fermat spirals. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967 Principle of the Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers: (A) Scheme illustrating the composition of the Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers: A focalized acoustical vortex is synthesized by spiraling metallic electrodes deposited at the surface of a piezoelectric substrate. The vortex propagates and focalizes inside a glass slide (sealed with the piezoelectric substrate) and a mobile glass coverslip before reaching the liquid contained in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chamber, wherein the particle is trapped. The mobility of the microfluidic chip (glass coverslip and sealed PDMS chamber) is enabled by a liquid couplant and a manual precision displacement setup represented in (E). (B) Spiraling pattern of the electrodes obtained from approximated equations derived in the study. (C) Scheme introducing the spherical (r, θ, φ) and cylindrical coordinates (ρ, φ, z) used for the demonstration of equation derived in the study (D) Comparison of the compactness of the transducer array developed in a previous study (left) to the Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers presented in this paper (right). This figure also shows the transparency of the Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers (particles are trapped on the central axis of the transducer). Photo credit: Jean-Louis Thomas, CNRS (left) and Michael Baudoin, Université de Lille (right). (E) Image showing the integration of the Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers into a Leica Z16 macroscope. Four tweezers have been patterned on a 3-inch LiNbO3 wafer. Photo credit: Jean-Claude Gerbedoen, SATT Nord. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967 Focused acoustic waves are therefore natural candidates to achieve this level of localization but many particles of interest (cells and rigid fragments) can migrate to the standing wave nodes to be expelled from the wave focus, thwarting research efforts on engineering a selective acoustical tweezer. While a wealth of systems were previously proposed to synthesize acoustic vortices, the ability to retain a 3-D trap and pick a specific particle independently of its neighbors was only recently demonstrated using a strong focused acoustic vortex. Acoustic vortices thus synthesized rely on transducer arrays or passive systems that are cumbersome and incompatible within microsystems (microfluidics and microchips). To demonstrate the acoustical tweezer’s ability to pick a particle and move independently of its neighbors, Baudoin et al. dispersed monodisperse polystyrene particles with a radius of 75 ± 2 µm inside the microfluidic chamber with a height of 300 µm. The tweezers picked a specific particle made of polystyrene, where the weak density and compressibility of particles contrasted with the surrounding liquid. According to a previous report the trapping force exerted on solid particles by a first-order Bessel beam strongly relied on the contrasting density and/or compressibility; weaker the contrast – weaker the trapping force. Only the particles trapped at the center of the vortex moved, while the others remained still. Using the technique, the scientists demonstrated the ability of the tweezer to precisely position a set of 18 polystyrene particles with a radius of 75 ± 2 µm starting from random distribution in to a prescribed pattern to spell ‘MOV’ (Moving Objects with Vortices).In total, Baudoin et al. lifted existing restrictions of acoustic tweezers that had thus far forced a trade-off between selectivity and miniaturization or integration, preventing their applications in microfluidics and microbiology. They overcame the limitations through (1) acoustic trapping with focused vortices, (2) holographic wave synthesis with IDTs and (3) integration of the principles of Fresnel lenses within a single, compact and transparent miniaturization device. Using the microsystem, the scientists demonstrated contactless manipulation of particles within a standard microscopy environment with state-of-the-art selectivity. Due to the simplicity of the technology and scalability to higher frequencies, the work can pave the way towards individual manipulation and in situ assembly of physical and biological micro-objects. The rigorous demonstration of real 3-D trapping with a progressive wave will require the elimination of any standing waves that may appear from wave reflections in a confined setup. The practical demonstrations of 3-D trapping capacity of the Archimedes-Fermat tweezers will present an interesting perspective in microrobotics, tissue engineering and nanomedicine. In the present work, Baudoin et al. therefore harnessed the potential of selective acoustic tweezers by folding the phase of a focused acoustic vortex on a flat surface. To accomplish this, they followed the principle of Fresnel lenses and synthesized acoustic vortices with single spiraling interdigitated electrodes deposited at the surface of a piezoelectric substrate. They materialized two equiphase lines using the electrodes to represent the folded phase on two discrete levels. The shape of the electrode was similar to an Archimedes-Fermat spiral, where its radial contraction allowed wave focusing without the requirement of a curved transducer or lens, as a major advantage compared to existing systems. Baudoin et al. were also able to overcome all limitations of the previously demonstrated cylindrical vortex-based tweezers to presently demonstrate higher selectivity. In the study, the scientists used the development to:Measure the acoustic field with a laser interferometer and quantify the fast-radial decrease of secondary rings (rings of weaker amplitude that can impede selectivity) in the system, and Selectively trap and move one particle independently of its neighbors within a standard microfluidic environment, demonstrating its practicality. Movie showing an animation of the vortex measured experimentally with a laser interferometer. Colors correspond to the amplitude of the normal displacement at the surface of the coverslip. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967 Spherical acoustic Bessel beams are spherical vortices that form excellent candidates to create a localized acoustic trap. Mechanistically, these acoustic fields can focus the acoustic energy in 3-D to create a shadow zone in the vortex center surrounded by a bright shell to trap particles. Much like a plane standing wave is a combination of two counterpropagating traveling waves, a spherical Bessel beam results from the interference between a converging and diverging spherical Hankel beam. As a result, a Bessel beam can be experimentally produced by a single Hankel converging beam that interferes with its diverging counterpart generated at the focus, i.e. within the vortex central singularity. Due to the piezoelectric effect, the scientists were able to couple the mechanical vibrations of the bulk acoustic waves to the electric potential and model the electrodes as perfect wires (isopotential lines). Using the two electrodes, Baudoin et al. discretized the folded phase on two levels to form the acoustic tweezers.The scientists compared the acoustic field measured experimentally with the numerical predictions obtained from the angular spectrum method to show excellent agreement between both, for the intensity and phase of the wave field. They compared the experimentally measured and averaged radial evolution of the ring’s intensity to (1) the radial evolution of a cylindrical vortex (red) and (2) the radial evolution of a spherical vortex (blue). The results showed that since the radiation pressure was proportional to the beam intensity, the selectivity was greatly enhanced by axial focusing of the beam compared to cylindrical vortices. In this way, the scientists showed 3-D focalization of the energy as a major advantage to selectively manipulate the particles. More information: Michael Baudoin et al. Folding a focalized acoustical vortex on a flat holographic transducer: Miniaturized selective acoustical tweezers, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967Diego Baresch et al. Three-dimensional acoustic radiation force on an arbitrarily located elastic sphere, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (2013). DOI: 10.1121/1.4770256Jinjie Shi et al. Acoustic tweezers: patterning cells and microparticles using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW), Lab on a Chip (2009). DOI: 10.1039/b910595f Citation: Folding an acoustic vortex on a flat holographic transducer to form miniaturized selective acoustic tweezers (2019, April 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-acoustic-vortex-flat-holographic-transducer.html Acoustic tweezers moves cells in three dimensions, builds structures Movie showing the localization of the vortex core. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967 LEFT: Field synthesized by an Archimedes-Fermat acoustical tweezers: Theory versus experiments. (A) Numerical predictions with the angular spectrum method and (B) experimental measurements with a UHF-120 Polytec laser interferometer of the normalized intensity of the vibration at the surface of the glass coverslip (focal plane, z = 0). The maximum amplitude measured experimentally (on the first ring) is 10 nm. (C) Numerical predictions with the angular spectrum method and (D) experimental measurements with the laser interferometer of the phase of the acoustic wave at the surface of the glass coverslip. (E) Radial evolution of the normalized intensity of the acoustic wave from the center of the vortex to the side, as a function of the lateral radius r in millimeters. Black solid line: Average over all angles φ of the intensity measured experimentally. Red dashed line: Evolution expected for a cylindrical vortex (cylindrical Bessel function). Blue dashed-dotted line: Evolution expected for a spherical vortex (spherical Bessel function). Red dotted line: Asymptotic evolution in 1/r. Blue dotted line: Asymptotic evolution in 1/r2. (F) Evolution of the field intensity (top) and phase (bottom) in the z direction. The direction of the arrow indicates the wave propagation direction. Left to right: Distances z = 6, 4, 2, and 0 mm, respectively (z = 0 corresponds to the focal plane). Top: Localization of the acoustic energy and formation of a localized trap. Bottom: Transition from a Hankel to a Bessel spherical beam. RIGHT: Microparticles’ selective displacement in a standard microscopy environment. (A) Selective manipulation of a polystyrene particle having a radius of 75 ± 2 μm with the 4.4-MHz selective acoustical tweezers based on Archimedes-Fermat spirals. This figure shows that only the particle trapped at the center of the vortex (located just above the lowest arrow) is moved, while the other particles remain still. The particles at rest have been colored to improve the readability of the figure. (B and C) Patterning of 18 polystyrene particles with a radius of 75 ± 2 μm into prescribed position to form the letters M, O, and V (moving object with vortices). (B) Randomly dispersed particles (initial state). (C) Organized particles (final state). Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1967 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2019 Science X Network Explore further Prior research has shown that icy moons such as Europa and Ganymede have rifts on their surfaces that are believed to have formed as they cooled and some ice melted—because water is denser than ice, it forced expansion of the interior, resulting in cracks. Prior research has shown that planets made of rock, such a Mars and Mercury, tend to have wrinkle formations on their surfaces. It is believed that they formed as the planets cooled—when rock cools, it grows denser and contracts, in such cases, forming thrust faults. Such faults are the result of older rock being pushed over younger rock. In this new effort, the researchers report that data from the Dawn spacecraft shows thrust faults on the dwarf planet’s surface.Approximately 940 kilometers across, Ceres is the largest known object in the asteroid belt located between Jupiter and Mars. NASA launched the space probe Dawn back in 2007 for the purpose of studying three of the largest dwarf planets in the asteroid belt, one of which was Ceres. The mission ended last year, but scientists are still studying the data it sent back. The researchers in Spain report finding evidence of fractures, ridges and slopes on the surface and 15 sites that appear to be thrust faults. The existence of such faults suggests that Ceres is shrinking, and as a result, wrinkles are forming on its surface. This finding is surprising, given the icy nature of the dwarf planet. They also noted that the thrust faults were located mostly close to the poles, but they suggest that the surface there might be easier to examine due to lighting conditions. They also propose the idea that Ceres may be shrinking due to the formation of layers of different material beneath the surface. They suggest more research focused on the thrust faults could fill in more details of the history of the dwarf planet. Citation: Evidence found that suggests dwarf planet Ceres is wrinkling (2019, July 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-evidence-dwarf-planet-ceres-wrinkling.html Gravitational data from Dawn suggests dome on Ceres is made of volcanic mud Ceres. Credit: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Spain has found evidence that suggests the dwarf planet Ceres is experiencing wrinkling on its surface. In their paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the group explains their study of data from the Dawn spacecraft and what it revealed. More information: Javier Ruiz et al. Evidence of thrust faulting and widespread contraction of Ceres, Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0803-2 Journal information: Nature Astronomy
This festival of lights showcases the creativity and quality of textiles, crafts and natural products, perfect for indulging in and gifting to friends, family and colleagues. The 80 and more participating craft groups represent regional craft traditions from across India.Try some special gifting options this Diwali with a pick from hand-made organic and perfumed candles, paper lamps, tea lights and hand-carved gourd lanterns. Gadhwal and Upada weaves, vivid woolen shawls to sarees from Chanderi and Maheshwari, garments embellished with regional embroideries from Kutchi Suf, Lambani, Kantha, along with appliqué textiles from Rajasthan will also be on display at the festival. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Traditional jewellery ranging from terracotta, lac to Meenakari, Dhokra and tribal silver will alos be on offer for the visitors alongside pottery, metal crafts, grass weaving and wood carvings, miniature painting and folk art traditions of Madhubani, Phad, Kalamkari and Pattachitra will all be present at the fair providing all with ample options to indulge in. Food from Maharashtra, Himachal and other regions will be available to satiate the taste buds along with cultural performances from across India. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘Diwali lights lamps both in our homes and in our hearts. It is a time of sharing and giving; and what better gift than something hand-crafted. Something which an artisan has spent time and love, and which represents our culture and traditions,’ says Dastkar’s Chairperson, Laila Tyabji.Pamper yourself with some retail therapy before markets get too crowded. Head over! WHERE: Nature Bazaar Venue, Andheria Modh WHEN: 10 October till 19 October, 11.00 am – 7.30 pm ENTRY: Rs. 20
Kolkata: In a tweet on the occasion of Earth Day, West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has urged people to put an end to plastic pollution to ensure a clean environment. “On the occasion of Earth Day, let us pledge to keep our environment clean. We can take a step in this direction by putting an end to plastic pollution,” Banerjee tweeted this morning.Earth Day is an annual event celebrated worldwide on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection.
The 39th edition of the Indian Handicrafts and Gifts Fair (spring), 2015 organized by the Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts [EPCH] will be held from February 20-23 at India Expo Centre and Mart, Greater Noida, NCR Delhi. About 2524 exhibitors, including 900 permanent marts, drawn from all over India, spread over in 12 exhibition halls shall be displaying their products exclusively designed for display during the fair.The Indian Handicrafts and Gifts Fair is one of the most important sourcing event for the international buyers. The fair has helped the handicrafts sector in diversifying its product range and creating new markets worldwide. “On an average 4000-5000 buyers from more than 60 countries have been visiting this fair to source their requirements,” informed Rakesh Kumar, Executive Director – EPCH.Two seminars entitled Opportunities and Export strategies for Handicrafts products in Latin America and Caribbean Region and Effective use of Digital Marketing and Online Promotion for Handicrafts Sector will be held on February 21 and 22 during the fair.
Kolkata: Indian government on Monday conferred the rank of ‘Colonel’ to the Vice-Chancellor (V-C) of Jadavpur University (JU) Professor Suranjan Das and Professor Sankar Kumar Ghosh of Kalyani University. The duo was appointed as ‘Colonel Commandant’ in the National Cadet Corps (NCC) at an event at Fort William.The guest of honour at the event was state Education minister Partha Chatterjee while Lt. Gen PP Malhotra, VSM, DG NCC was the chief guest. Several dignitaries from the Indian Army were also present. The V-Cs sported uniforms of the conferred ranks while the two guests pinned the accoutrements onto the uniforms of both the Vice-Chancellors. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIn his address, Chatterjee said: ” I convey my best wishes to the Army and NCC for conferring this prestigious ‘Colonel’ rank to both the esteemed V-Cs of Jadavpur and Kalyani University and appointing them as ‘Colonel Commandant’ in NCC. It is indeed a gold-letter day. The professionalism and commitment with which the Army officers and instructors are training the cadets is praiseworthy.”JU V-C Suranjan Das said: “It is recognition for the entire state than just for an individual. It is an overall recognition for higher education in this state. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedSankar Kumar Ghosh, V-C of KU said: “We have an NCC academy on our campus and we are interacting with the youth and promoting them towards nationalism.”It may be mentioned that the conferring of the rank of the Colonel Commandant aims at increased patronage and purposeful association for the furtherance of NCC activities. It also enhances interaction of Vice-Chancellors with cadets and officers to help and guide them through their educational and NCC career.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee expressed concern over the tourists from Bengal who got stuck in Dras following a landslide, and directed senior officials to take necessary steps for their safety and security.A group of people from Konanagar in Hooghly had gone for a trip to Kashmir, Leh and Ladakh and got stuck on their way back from Leh and Ladakh. A Landslide took place on Tuesday at Saitani Nalah, which is situated between Dras and Sonmarg, leaving the tourists stranded on their way back from Leh and Ladakh. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAll tourists were taken back to Dras, the sub-divisional headquarters, where there are hotels, hospitals and habitation. The Chief Minister, who is in Kalimpong at present, directed officials of the state government to take necessary steps on an immediate basis, to ensure that the tourists do not face any problem and return safely to their homes.Senior officials of the state government contacted officials of Kashmir administration. It has been learnt that officials from Kashmir administration are extending all help to those who are stuck in Dras. They have given food and water to the stranded tourists. The local administration has also made necessary arrangements to provide medical assistance to the tourists, who are stuck at the place since Tuesday. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe state government officials have also come to know that the work of clearing the road is going on in full swing and would be done by Thursday afternoon. As soon as the road is cleared and it is declared safe for vehicles to ply, initiatives would be taken to help the tourists return home. The state Tourism department has also opened a helpline number (033-22358271/033-22358272), on which people can contact for any assistance.So far, there is information of about 22 people from Bengal getting stuck in Dras.
Kolkata: Two youth were killed following a drunken brawl that took place in Chinsurah, Hooghly on Saturday night. The incident triggered tension among the locals.The victims have been identified as Pradip Dostidar and Md Najiruddin.According to the police, both the victims were consuming alcohol at a club situated at Pranati Nagar on Saturday night along with six others.”The duo had an argument as Dostidar didn’t like the way the other spoke to him. Dostidar asked him to talk with respect as the latter is younger,” said a senior police officer. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe argument turned into a brawl when Najiruddin took out a gun and shot at him from a close quarter. The victim fell on the floor with a bullet injury. He was rushed to a hospital where he was declared brought dead due to a fatal gunshot injury.The other youth beat up the accused. He also died after he was taken to the hospital. after being informed, police reached the spot.Some fled the spot. Police are conducting raids to nab the culprits.According to locals, consuming alcohol in the area was nothing new. The youth used to booze in the area on a regular basis. Saturday’s incident was no exception. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPLocals heard the sound of gun shots and rushed to the spot only to find both the victims were lying on the floor. Dostidar was declared brought dead after being taken to Chinsurah Imambara hospital by the locals. The other youth who were present there attacked Najiruddin with a bamboo stick. Najiruddin succumbed to his injuries in a hospital.The incident triggered tension in the locality. According to the police, both the deceased had several cases pending at different police stations. Police said Najiruddin was a murder accused and was free on bail.
Kolkata: There will be heavy to very heavy rainfall in North Bengal in the next 24 hours, predicts the Regional Meteorological Office in Alipore. The weather office predicted that there may be heavy to very heavy rainfall in Alipurduar, Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri, while there may be moderate to heavy rainfall in Darjeeling and Kurseong.The state Irrigation and waterways department has alerted the district magistrates and superintendents of the police and asked them to take all precautionary measures in view of the rainfall alert. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe department has asked the DMs and SPs to get in touch with the control rooms set up by the Irrigation and waterways department and Nabanna.The people living in the low lying area will be evacuated. The water, which was flowing above the danger mark , has started receding and if it does not rain heavily, then locals will not be evacuated. The district administration in North Bengal has been asked to keep the disaster management teams ready. Meanwhile, many important roads in North Bengal including the state highways are under water due to torrential rain. The engineers of Irrigation and Waterways department are examining the embankments and emergency repair work are being carried out.Alipore weather office said that although it will rain in south Bengal, there will not be any relief from the discomfort factor. It rained in Kolkata in the afternoon. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) held a high-level meeting attended by the senior officials to control waterlogging in some pocketsin Kolkata. Chief Minister Mamata banerjee had expressed her displeasure over the KMC’s failure to clear accumulated water from some streets in Behala on Sunday. She had telephoned mayor Sovan Chatterjee and asked him to take action. The agencies looking after the maintenance of the pumps have been asked to speed up work and install them at the earliest.
Kolkata: With the advent of monsoon in the state, North 24-Parganas district administration has taken up massive anti-dengue drive as precautionary measures.All the municipalities and Panchayat functionaries have been instructed to undertake various campaigns to combat dengue and other mosquitoes-borne diseases.The district administration will organise awareness campaigns and urge people to ensure that there is no empty cups, broken furniture and other used materials are kept on the rooftop or in nearby areas. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeSimilarly, the authorities of schools and other educational institutions, central and state government offices will be asked to clear the roofs regularly.According to a senior administrative official, the officer in charge of different police stations will be requested to ensure that there is no accumulation of water on the seized goods like vehicles that have met with road accidents. The district administrative officials will take report in the implementation of anti larvae drive. According to senior health official in the district, the accumulated water in empty plastic cups, containers and broken furniture are the potential breeding ground for mosquitoes. The district administration has asked all the Panchayats officials and municipalities to spread awareness among people through leaflets. The district administration is also seeking co-operation from them. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe municipalities have been asked to keep rapid action teams so that they can quickly go to the places, where suspected cases are reported from.The health workers under various municipalities have been asked to visit individual houses and housing complexes to examine the overhead tanks and underground reservoirs.The owners of individual houses and secretary in case of housing cooperatives will be asked to take up the issue immediately, if the reservoirs are not covered properly. According to the district administration, if anybody fails to comply, the municipalities will issue show cause notice. The municipalities have been instructed to maintain cleanliness and remove garbage from time to time. Municipality authorities will supervise the anti dengue driver.All the municipality and Panchayats have been asked to sprinkle various anti-mosquito oil in the drains and spread other insecticides in the areas, which are breeding grounds of mosquito borne diseases.
Be it legendary Mozart’s soothing symphonies, mesmerising classical renditions from the doyen of Carnatic music MS Subbulakshmi or tranquil instrumental tunes, music therapy is increasingly being used for patients suffering from depression, anxiety, autism, chronic pain, Alzheimer’s, coronary artery disease and even cancer in India.Worldwide, specially-trained musicians are emerging as music therapists to help patients, especially in chronic and painful conditions, to help patients recover faster. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Although there are not many trained therapists available in the hospital setting in India at present, the trend globally is slowly catching up with the Indian health providers, who now realise the clinical and evidence-based benefits of music. “Many a time, music is being used alongside other therapies, particularly in patients suffering from depression and anxiety. Music is also being used as part of therapy for children suffering from autism and patients suffering from auditory hallucinations alongside medication,” explained Dr Sameer Malhotra, director (mental health and behavioural sciences) from Max Super Speciality Hospital in New Delhi. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“We are also using light instrumental music and even Indian classical music for relaxation and as part of therapies for patients suffering from depression, anxiety or undergoing other treatments,” he said. Listening to relaxing music has been shown to reduce stress and anxiety in healthy patients undergoing invasive medical procedures like surgery, colonoscopy and dental procedures or patients coping with coronary heart disease and cancer.“Listening to music releases neurochemicals through the limbic system (brain structures that deal with emotions as well as memories). It also restores the neurochemical balance. The recovery depends on the genre of music being applied so we have to be careful in selecting music according to patient’s needs,” Dr Malhotra explains. Music therapy covers all aspects of the patients like physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, cognitive and social needs. Music reduces levels of
Kolkata: Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha President Poonam Mahajan on Saturday termed West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee as a ‘U-turn Didi’ and described her party Trinamool Congress as a “terror-making machine.” Mahajan, speaking at a rally in Kolkata, ridiculed Banerjee’s pet slogan ‘maa, mati, manush’ (mother, motherland and people) and described the Trinamool Congress supremo’s activities in the state as “inhuman”. “People had hopes that being a woman, Banerjee will have a sense of compassion for the people. But the way she has been running this government from the first day, I think she should be called U-turn didi. She has forgotten all her promises towards the mothers and sisters. Today West Bengal is at the top in cases of atrocities against women,” Mahajan said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life “If we talk about ‘maati’ (motherland), their MLAs are illegally capturing lands, and fighting gang wars over it while the people of the state are despondent, dispirited and unemployed. It seems Benerjee has actually gone forward with the slogan of mein Mamata amanush’ (I am inhuman),” she said. Accusing the Trinamool Congress of commiting large-scale violence and atrocities on BJP activists in the state, Mahajan said the TMCA has become a “terror making machine”. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed She alleged that Banerjee’s vow to usher in change (Parivartan) in the state when she came to power in 2011 has fallen flat on its face over the past seven years. The only visible change was in the colours of the buildings — painted blue and white, Banerjee’s favourite — and in lives of the Trinamool Congress activists. Taking a swipe at Banerjee for her criticism of the draft NRC in Assam, the BJP leader accused the Bengal Chief Minister of trying to turn her state into Bangladesh. “Mamata-didi is secretly working to turn West Bengal into Bangladesh. Those who are saying that there will be a civil war in the country because of NRC…we will uproot such anti-nationals from here and go ahead,” she added.
Gautam Budha society for social welfare was formed sometime back on the initiative of India Exposition Mart Limited (IEML) and the District Magistrate of Gautam Budh Nagar. Currently approximately 40 corporates of the district are involved with the activity under their CSR initiatives.IEML has donated a Mobile Education Van to educate under privileged children. The mobile education van is fully equipped with audio-visual systems, books, stationary, creatives etc. This van will be formally inducted and will start functioning as a mobile school at the slum cluster of Sector 9/10 Noida. This Mobile school will initially educate two batches of 15 children each. The program will be implemented by Niveda Foundation. The formal inauguration of the Van is taking place on Monday, August 15 at 11:00am in Sector 9/10, slum cluster, Noida informed Rakesh Kumar, Chairman, India Expo Centre.N P Singh, IAS, District Magistrate, who is the prime motivator for the same has graciously accepted to inaugurate the Mobile Education Van in the presence of CDO Makhan lal Gupta and eminent persons of the area Rakesh Kumar, Chairman IEML, S.P. Dadoo, Rakesh Gupta, O P Manchanda and other members of the welfare and dignitaries from the corporates of Gautam Budh Nagar.The society and its members are committed to the development of Gautam Budh Nagar through its CSR initiative covering Education and Skill Development, Sanitation and Women Empowerment, Preventive Healthcare and malnutrition, Environment Sustainability and Safe Drinking Water.
The dipping temperatures are no impediment for them. With the Kolkata International Bookfair 2018 just around the corner, booksellers and publishers of the city are gearing up with brand new titles that will grab the attention of lakhs of readers thronging the fair daily from January 31.Rupa and Co, one of the premier book publishers of the city are ready with a number of new titles in both fiction and non-fiction domains and some also in the children’s book section. Shashi Tharoor’s latest book, ‘Why I am a Hindu’ is expected to do well, as well as Sudip Chakravarti’s book, ‘The Bengalis’. Tharoor’s earlier book, ‘An era of Darkness: The British Empire in India'(2016) had earned appreciation for its sharp indictment of the British era and its impact on India. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfOther books that are expected to fly off the tables are veteran politician Pranab Mukherjee’s biography, Jaya Jaitly’s memoirs, ‘Life among the Scorpions’, Ruskin Bond’s ‘Dragon in the Tunnel'(for children), a book on Lucknowi cuisine and a book on Ghalib. “We have a mixed bag of new titles this year. However I expect Tharoor’s book and Chakravarti’s book to do really well at the book fair”, Raju Burman, partnerof Rupa & Co told Millennium Post. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveOne of the biggest Bengali publishers, Dey’s Publishing, is putting out a number of new titles this year, including collected works of an eminent author, Nabaneeta Dev Sen. The first volume is ready and was gifted to Sen at a glittering function on the occasion of her 80th birthday. Other books that will see the light of the day at the book fair are Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay’s ‘Saat Satero’ – short stories to be published in book form for the first time, ‘Kishore Kalpabigyan Samagro’ (science fiction stories), Bani Basu’s ‘Sujodhon Durjodhon’ and ‘Panchalkanya Krishna’ as well as Pracheto Gupa’s ‘Ferot Asha Golpo’. “A book by the Chief Minister of West Bengal, Mamata Banerjee, is also expected. It is likely to be a book of poems”, says Subhankar Dey, one of the proprietors of Dey’s Publishing. The publishing house has brought out several books penned by the CM earlier. Penguin which will have a two stall presence at the Kolkata book fair this year will be putting out important titles like Mahatma Gandhi’s autobiography, the first critical edition by Tridip Suhrid, Taslima Nasreen’s Dwikhandito’s English translation – ‘The Split’, Karan Johar’s autobiography – ‘Unsuitable Boy’ and Ruskin Bond’s ‘White Mice’. Books of fiction like Navonil Chakravarty’s ‘Cheaters’ and Sujata Massay’s ‘Murder on Malabar Hills’ are expected to do well, said Nirmalya Roychoudhury, GM Sales(east), Penguin.
Kolkata: The Bengal government is all set to revive the Kulpi Port project at an estimated cost of Rs 3,000 crore that is tipped to generate a minimum of 10,000 jobs.The proposal to revive the Kulpi Port that has been lying defunct for almost a decade was cleared during the Cabinet meeting chaired by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Thursday. The Bengal government had received the proposal of investment during the Bengal Global Business Summit (BGBS) in January this year. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose”The port has been lying defunct for 10-12 years. Kulpi, a riverine port, would see a minimum investment of Rs 3,000 crore. The figure may go up to even Rs 4,000-Rs 5,000 crore in the process. We are happy to inform you that at least 10,000 jobs would be created once the ancillary industries would come up centering around the port,” state Finance and industry minister Amit Mitra said at Nabanna on Thursday. He also clarified that there will be no accusation of lands and the proposal of an SEZ status had already been denied by the government. There will be a huge number of indirect employment at the port, Mitra added. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIt may be mentioned that Dubai-based DP World had proposed to invest in the project during this year’s BGBS and the Chief Minister had readily accepted the proposal. There had been many discussions on the project for the past five years. According to the initial plans, there is a possibility of developing a long-pending container port. The proposed port in South 24-Parganas may be developed as an industrial zone around the new maritime infrastructure similar to Haldia and Kolkata. DP World will have 74 percent stake in Kulpi Port while the Bengal government will own the remaining 26 percent. The Bengal government also has a stake in an associated project where an industrial park is expected to come up around the port area. The state government had earlier received statutory clearance on the Kulpi Port project in the South 24-Parganas. The officials of the state government believe that it will attract good investments. It may be mentioned here that Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had earlier said that the state will develop the Tajpur deep sea port on its own, as the Centre did “nothing” to start work on the project in the past three years.
Kolkata: Police officers launched a campaign to ensure better safety of women here on Friday. The drive was titled ‘Respect Women’. After assuming office, Kolkata Commissioner of Police Anuj Sharma had said woman’s safety would be his priority.A source said Sharma had instructed senior officers to take necessary steps to make the city safer for the women. He also advised the officers to launch an extensive campaign to ensure that women were not harassed in the city. They should feel safe to travel across the city. He instructed the officers to act immediately if any crime against women was reported. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseBased on the suggestions of the top cop, police officers had come up with the idea of celebrating the Women’s Day in a unique way. Quiz competitions were organised at marketplaces, bus terminuses, shopping malls and other crowded places with women. This apart, police pasted stickers on vehicles with the owner’s permission to promote their mission. A yellow sticker with the slogan “Respect Women” along with the logo of Kolkata Police were pasted on private vehicles. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataOn the commercial vehicles, a sticker with space for writing the vehicle’s registration number, name and mobile number of the driver, was pasted. It will not only help the women, but all the passengers to get hold of the vehicle’s registration number and driver’s identity in case of an emergency. According to senior officers of Kolkata Police, such campaigns will be organised throughout the year to make the city safer for the women. It will also help the police to communicate with local residents.
With so much so happening around, turning old is not limited to sticking at home, under four walls with pair of glasses and newspaper or just chitchatting with your friend for that matter. There is much more that one can explore other than these cyclic activities.You can always think of adventurous activities which are specifically meant for senior citizens and are also not very difficult to follow. Here is a quick handy list of the destinations one can explore: Also Read – Add new books to your shelfWildlife Safari in Jim Corbett: Jim Corbett National Park is few of the best getaways that one must explore to bring out their adventurous side. With a jungle safari in the wild, and a visit to the Corbett waterfalls, the experience makes a memory, which one can always to cherish. Further if you like to invest time in history, a visit to Garjia temple is must.Rafting tour : Kullu, being a prime holiday destination, situated on the banks of River Beas, Kullu offers many interesting adventure activities, including river rafting, trekking, river crossing to name a few. People who enjoy or find solace in water, rafting would be an experience in itself as it adds refreshing time in your life. Plus, there is no age bar or any particular requirements except the deep instinct. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveCamping at the river side: Khouduang waterfalls in Manipur is a must visit as you can camp under the stars by the bank of Barak river. One can’t afford to miss the euphoric moments to enjoy the view of concave cut-outs of rocks, created by the massive flow of white water. It’s a delightful opportunity to breathe around in lap of mother – nature. Hot air balloon ride: Imagine, you are on this ride and you can literally feel the meaning of – being on top of the world. There are many places across India like Pushkar in Rajasthan; Kamshet near Lonavala in Maharashtra; Damdama Lake in Delhi/Haryana; Karnataka; Goa where one can try this ride. The only requirement is that you should be over 4 feet tall, with enough stamina to remain standing throughout the ride.